Reading Vocabulary


1. analysis – studying the parts of something to better understand the whole (ex.

        looking at different parts of a book to get a better understanding of the book)

2. novel – chapter book

3. genré – type of book (fiction, nonfiction, biography, mystery, science fiction)

4. setting – when and where the story takes place

5. narrator – the person who tells the story

6. plot – the events in the story told in chronological order

7. chronological order – events arranged in the order in which they happen

8. climax – the most interesting point (event) of the story

9. conflict – problem in the story

10.  internal conflict – a problem that a character is having INSIDE his/her own

                                        mind (character vs. self)

11. external conflict – a problem that a character is having with an OUTSIDE

                                       source (char vs char, char vs nature, char vs society)

12.  resolution – a solution to the conflict

13. theme: a lesson that the reader or a character learns in a story

14. point of view:  A story can be told in first person-limited, first person-

                               omniscient, second person, third person-limited, and third        


15. first person limited: (point of view) one of the characters tells their own story

                                         (I, me, my, us, we)

16. first person omniscient: (point of view) more than one character is telling their

side of the story
17.  second person: (point of view) the author writes directly to the reader 

(you, your)

18. third person limited: (point of view) the author writes thoughts and feelings about 

                one main character; the author is NOT in the story (he, she, his, her, they)

19. third person omniscient: (point of view)  the author writes about more

                                                than one main character; the author is NOT in the story

20. author’s purpose: 1. inform       2. entertain     3. express opinions      4. to persuade    

21. pronoun: takes the place of a noun

            First person pronouns – I, me, my, mine, our, we

            Second person pronouns – you, your

            Third person pronouns – he, she, his, her, him, them, their, they

22.  character development: creating a character’s background, physical appearance, and personality                 

23.  point of view chart:

                                                1st Person                                                             3rd Person

One main character

Tells his/her own story

One main character

Author tells the story

(author is NOT in the story)

Two or more main characters

Tell their own story


Two or more main characters

Author tells the story

(author is NOT in the story)




                        I, me, my, our, we, us                       he, she, they, them, his, her, their



24.  tone:  the attitude of the writer

25.  mood:  the overall feeling of a piece of writing

26.  symbol:  something that represents something else

27.  foreshadow:  to warn that something may happen

28.  flashback:  looking back at an event that happened earlier

29.  infer:  to make a guess based on known facts

30.  predict:  to tell what you believe will happen

31.  compare:  to show how things are similar or alike

32.  contrast:  to show how things are different



RL.7.1, RL.7.9, RI.7.1

RL.8.1, RI.8.1


33.  connotation:  images that pop into your head when you hear a word or phrase

34.  denotation:   the actual dictionary definition of a word

35.  pronunciation:   the correct way to say a word; symbols that represent sounds

36.  thesaurus:   an alphabetized book that contains synonyms and antonyms

37.  synonym:   a word that has the same meaning as another word

38.  antonym:   a word that means the opposite of another word

39.  table of contents: a chronological list of stories, chapters, or topics located in the front of the book

40.  glossary: alphabetized list of words and their denotations  located in the back of a textbook

41.  index: alphabetized list of topics, stories,  and authors found in the book; located in the back of a book

42.  atlas: a book of maps

43.  almanac: a book of records and important events published yearly

44.  analogy: shows a relationship between two sets of words

45.  cause: something that happens and produces a result

46.  effect: a result that is produced by a cause

47.  objective: writing without stating opinions; writing using only facts

48. subjective: writing that states opinions

49.  root word: the main part of a word (un happi ness)

50. affix: a prefix or suffix 

51.  prefix: an affix that is added to the beginning of a word that changes a root word’s meaning    (un happi ness)

52.  suffix: an affix that is added to the end of a word that changes a root word’s meaning    (un happi ness)

53.  stereotype: to  assume a person fits into a category or group based on race, gender, religion, physical attributes,  

                             geographic location, financial status, social status, etc.

  (example of physical attribute stereotypes: All tall people are great basketball players, All redheads have tempers.)

54.  acronym: using the FIRST LETTERS of a group of words to make new words

                       (example:  SCUBA=Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus)


Content Standards:

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity: 10

RL.7.2, RI.7.1, RI.7.2, RI.7.6, RI.7.8, RI.7.9, RI.8.10

RL.8.2, RI.8.1, RI.8.2, RI.8.6, RI.8.8, RI.8.9, RI.8.10

L.7.4, L.7.4a, L.7.4c, L.7.4d, L.7.5c

RST.6-8.7, WHST.6-8.9


55.  figure of speech/figurative language: words or phrases that have a meaning different from the literal meaning, such as idioms, metaphors, and similes.

56.  literal: the exact meaning of a word or phrase

57. idiom: a phrase that cannot be understood from the literal meaning (ex:  “It’s raining cats and dogs.”)

58.  simile: comparing two UNLIKE objects using “like” or “as” (ex: Your room looks like a pig pen!”; “Your room is as messy as a garbage dump!”)

59.  metaphor: comparing two UNLIKE objects without using “like” or “as” (ex: “Jeffery is a computer.”)

60.  personification: giving human qualities to nonhuman things (ex: The clock “tells” time.)

61.  onomatopoeia: the use of a word to represent a real sound (ex: boom, clap, bang, ring)

62. alliteration: the repetition of CONSONANT sounds close together (ex: Sally sells seashells by the seashore.)

63. rhyme: two or more words that end with same sounds (ex: cake, rake, bake)

64.  stanza: a group of lines in a poem or song that is SEPARATED from the rest of the poem or song

65.  hyperbole: exaggerated statement (ex: “This is taking forever!”)

66. imagery: using the five senses to create visual images

67. haiku: a three-line poem, usually about nature.  The first line is five syllables, the second is seven syllables, and the third line is five syllables.

(ex:        I teach junior high

                Where kids are cool and awesome

                I just love my job

68. oxymoron: putting two words together that have opposite meanings (dumb genius, short giant)

69. irony: to mean the opposite of what is said (ex:  “We are so happy to  be back at school.”)

70.  refrain: lines repeated in a poem; the chorus of a song


Content Standards:  RI 7.4, RL 7.4, , RL 7.10

                                         RI 8.4, RL 8.4, RL 8.6, RL 8.10

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